The role of supplementation in the regulation of structural and functional central nervous system disorders among patients with Down syndrome
Magdalena Narbutowicz, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans, which results from the presence of an extra chromosome 21. Significant progress has been made over the past years in expanding knowledge on molecular, structural and functional abnormalities in patients with Down syndrome. The obtained findings encouraged many scientists to attempt to use bioactive substances in in vivo and in vitro settings to inhibit central nervous system disorders. The use of supplements in the form of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contributes to improved mitochondrial function in neurons, reduced DYRK1A overexpression and limited overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Certain doses of resveratrol improve mitochondrial function, increase hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation and, similarly to curcumin and pomegranate juice, inhibit premature ageing and prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, it was observed that the use of choline supplements during pregnancy in healthy and trisomic experimental animals contributed to the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, improved concentration, mood and cognitive functions in the offspring.